In times of war, diplomacy becomes the other protagonist. States embark on diplomatic avenues to seek dialogue among rivals, while international organisations draw on multilateral tools to offer additional and/or alternative platforms for crisis resolution. Diplomacy works through dialogue, exchange of views and interests, negotiations, with a view to preserve international security. Not only, but soft power can also be an important tool to the service of diplomacy. Public diplomacy practices are essential for boosting dialogue with countries with whom security and “hard power” relations too often take the lead. What are the main challenges threatening peace in the MENA region, and what the main priorities? What can diplomacy do to win these challenges? Can diplomacy ‘play in advance’ and prevent conflict escalations? What examples, best practices, and which circumstances are necessary for this to happen? There is much talk about “war strategies”, but do “peace strategies” exist, too? What means does diplomacy have at its disposal to create peace and security?